Ocean Modeling and Parameterization by James C. McWilliams (auth.), Eric P. Chassignet, Jacques

By James C. McWilliams (auth.), Eric P. Chassignet, Jacques Verron (eds.)

The realism of enormous scale numerical ocean versions has stronger dra­ matically in recent times, partially simply because smooth desktops allow a extra trustworthy illustration of the differential equations by way of their algebraic analogs. both major, if no more so, has been the enhanced lower than­ status of actual techniques on house and time scales smaller than those who should be represented in such versions. at the present time, essentially the most challeng­ ing concerns last in ocean modeling are linked to parameterizing the results of those high-frequency, small-space scale approaches. exact parameterizations are in particular wanted in long-term integrations of coarse answer ocean types which are designed to appreciate the sea vari­ skill in the weather method on seasonal to decadal time scales. ordinarily, parameterizations of subgrid-scale, high-frequency mo­ tions in ocean modeling were according to easy formulations, resembling the Reynolds decomposition with consistent diffusivity values. until eventually lately, modelers have been desirous about first order matters reminiscent of an accurate represen­ tation of the elemental beneficial properties of the sea circulate. because the numerical simu­ lations develop into larger and not more depending on the discretization offerings, the focal point is popping to the physics of the wanted parameterizations and their numerical implementation. today, the good fortune of any huge scale numerical simulation is without delay established upon the alternatives which are made for the parameterization of assorted subgrid processes.

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Geophys. 32, 363-403. , G. Danabasoglu, S. C. McWilliams (1997) Sensitivity to surface forcing and boundary-layer mixing in a global ocean model: annual-mean climatology. J. Phys. , in press. R. Gent (1998) Validation of vertical mixing in an equatorial ocean model using Large-Eddy Simulations and observations. J. Phys. , submitted. P. (1979) A stable and accurate convective modelling procedure based on quadratic upstream interpolation. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 19, 59-98.

10. o. 10. 20. 30. 40. 50. 60. LATITUDE Figure 9. Estimates of the meridional heat transport in the North Atlantic Ocean from a model experiment [here the SPEM model in the Dynamo experiment (Dynamo, 1997)]. The thin curve is the transport estimate obtained from the divergence of the net heat flux forcing the model. It would be the transport given by the model if forced with fixed fluxes. The thick curve is the transport estimate of the dynamical model forced with a retroaction term which depends on the model SST acting on the heat forcing.

2. Surface Boundary Conditions for the Primitive Equations This section provides the formulation of the surface boundary conditions for the primitive equations. Notations are classic and are not described unless we believe it is necessary. 1. FLUX BOUNDARY CONDITION There are several ways to formulate the forcing of an OGCM based on the primitive equations. A formulation which attempts to remain close to the physics of the air-sea interactions is the "flux boundary condition" . It is assumed that vertical gradients of the prognostic model variables (horizontal velocity, temperature and salinity) are proportional to the flux across the interface.

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