By Carolyn Ann Koh, Amadeu Sum, E Dendy Sloan
With hundreds of thousands of kilometres of onshore and offshore oil and gasoline pipelines in provider world wide, pipelines are the life’s blood of the area. infamous for disrupting typical gasoline creation or transmission, the formation of typical fuel hydrates can rate a firm 1000's of hundreds of thousands and result in catastrophic gear breakdowns and safeguard and well-being risks. Written by means of a global crew of specialists, Natural fuel Hydrates in stream Assurance supply knowledgeable assessment of the perform and thought in traditional gasoline hydrates, with purposes essentially in circulate coverage. Compact and simple to exploit, the booklet presents readers with a wealth of fabrics which come with the foremost classes discovered within the during the last two decades. choked with box case reviews, the publication is designed to supply hands-on education and perform in calculating hydrate part equilibria and plug dissociation. additionally readers obtain executable courses to calculate hydrate thermodynamics.
- Case stories of hydrates in stream assurance
- The key recommendations underlying the sensible applications
- An evaluate of the cutting-edge circulate coverage commercial developments
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Additional resources for Natural Gas Hydrates in Flow Assurance
Upon restart of flow, the produced fluid may disperse the resident water in the flowline, as water droplets that are gas saturated and immediately form an external hydrate film on the droplets. The accumulation of the hydrate-coated water droplets results in hydrate plug formation. Hydrate formation continues from an initial, thin hydrate film encapsulating water droplets that agglomerate to solidify the accumulated mass and form a plug. It has been shown that hydrate plugs may be as little as 4 volume% hydrate (Austvik, 1992), with the remainder encapsulated as liquid water, although the agglomerated, hydrate-encrusted droplets act as a hydrate plug.
5 (a) Hydrate plug projectile eruption from pipeline at bend. (b) High-momentum hydrate plug increases pressure, causing pipeline rupture. ) Carolyn Koh and Jefferson Creek Where the pipe bends, the hydrate plug can rupture the flowline through projectile impact. 6 Plug velocity oscillation as a function of time, with dampening by friction and flowline liquids. 7 Effect of volume ratio (downstream to upstream of the plug, shown as parameters with each line) on downstream pressure maximum with time.
2008. Petroleum Hydrate Deposition Mechanisms: The Influence of Pipeline Wettability. In: Englezos, P. ), 6th International Conference on Gas Hydrates, Vancouver, Canada, July 6–10, 2008. , 1992. Hydrate Formation and Behaviour in Pipes. D. Ing. Thesis, Norges Tekniske H gskole Trondheim, Norway. , 1989. Multiphase Equilibrium Flash Calculations for Systems Containing Gas Hydrates. Fluid Phase Equilibria 53, 97–104. , 2008. Critical Descriptors For Hydrate Properties of Oils Compositional Features.