By Brian M. Dale, Mark A. Brown, Richard C. Semelka
Magnetic resonance imaging offers improved tender tissue distinction and the facility to photograph in a number of planes with no exposing sufferers to ionizing radiation. MRI is easily proven for the workup of ailments of the primary fearful procedure and is now turning into a chief device for learning musculoskeletal, gynaecologic, prostatic, and hepatic disorder. it is a reference for either radiologists and technologists, and the fundamental structure of the second variation continues to be unchanged: severe mathematical formalism has been minimized and the practial features of MR know-how because it is utilized in the late-1990s are under pressure. the second one version has been totally up-to-date and better to incorporate options resembling MR angiograpy: echo-planar, or "fast," MRI; MR spectroscopy and diffusion imaging. It good points: extended insurance of the quantity and variety of scientific functions; and fabric on artifacts, distinction brokers, and scientific protocols.
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Extra info for Mri: Basic Principles and Applications
One line of data is acquired for each slice prior to measurement of a < previous page page_33 next page > < previous page page_34 next page > Page 34 Figure 4-4. Concept of phase encoding. Prior to application of GPE, all protons precess at the same frequency. When GPE is applied, a proton increases or decreases its precessional frequency, depending on its position yi. A proton located at yi = 0 (y2) experiences no effect from GPE and no change in frequency or phase (f2 = 0). A proton located at y3 precesses faster while GPE is applied.
Each line corresponds to a different hardware component (rf transmitter, gradient amplifier, or ADC sampling period). Activity for a component is shown as a deviation from the baseline. , rf transmitter and gradient) are illustrated as activity in both lines. , slice selection amplitude) is shown as a constant deviation from baseline. , phase encoding amplitude) is shown as a hashed region to illustrate multiple values. transmitter and one representing each gradient (labeled as GX, GY, GZ, or GSLICE, GREAD, and GPHASE).
Pulses may be applied using amplitude modulation, where the energy is distributed to all frequencies at the same time during the pulse, or using frequency modulation, where frequencies are sequentially excited during application of the pulse. The center frequency of the pulse is normally chosen as the resonant frequency for the particular collection of protons under observation. The duration and shape < previous page page_43 next page > < previous page page_44 next page > Page 44 Figure 4-9. (Continued) < previous page page_44 next page > < previous page page_45 next page > Page 45 of the pulse determine the bandwidth or range of frequencies on either side of the center frequency that are excited by the pulse.