By Josef Stern
The numerous philosophers, linguists, and cognitive scientists writing on metaphor over the last 20 years have usually taken without any consideration that metaphor lies outdoors, if no longer against, bought conceptions of semantics and grammar. Assuming that metaphor can't be defined through or inside semantics, they declare that metaphor has little, if whatever, to educate us approximately semantic thought. during this booklet Josef Stern demanding situations those assumptions. he's involved basically with the query: Given the acquired belief of the shape and targets of semantic conception, does metaphorical interpretation, in complete or half, fall inside its scope? in particular, he asks, what (if something) does a speaker-hearer understand as a part of her semantic competence while she understands the translation of a metaphor? based on Stern, the reply to those questions lies within the systematic context-dependence of metaphorical interpretation. Drawing on a deep analogy among demonstratives, indexicals, and metaphors, Stern develops a proper idea of metaphorical that means that underlies a speaker's skill to interpret a metaphor. together with his semantics, he additionally addresses a number of philosophical and linguistic concerns raised via metaphor. those comprise the interpretive constitution of advanced prolonged metaphors, the cognitive importance of metaphors and their literal paraphrasability, the pictorial personality of metaphors, the function of similarity and exemplification in metaphorical interpretation, metaphor-networks, useless metaphors, the relation of metaphors to different figures, and the dependence of metaphors on literal meanings. in contrast to such a lot metaphor theorists, in spite of the fact that, who take those difficulties to be sui generis to metaphor, Stern subsumes them lower than a similar rubric as different semantic evidence that carry for nonmetaphorical language.
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Extra info for Metaphor in Context
Thus Richard Rorty: [S]emantical notions like ``meaning'' have a role only within the quite narrow . . limits of regular, predictable, linguistic behaviorÐthe limits which mark o¨ (temporarily) the literal use of language. In Quine's image, the realm of meaning is a relatively small ``cleared'' area within the jungle of use. . To say . . that ``metaphor belongs exclusively to the domain of use'' is simply to say that . . 15 In this sense, its ``context-dependence'' or status as ``use'' would seem to render metaphor impregnable to any kind of theoretical explanation and to semantic theory in particular.
In Quine's image, the realm of meaning is a relatively small ``cleared'' area within the jungle of use. . To say . . that ``metaphor belongs exclusively to the domain of use'' is simply to say that . . 15 In this sense, its ``context-dependence'' or status as ``use'' would seem to render metaphor impregnable to any kind of theoretical explanation and to semantic theory in particular. ''16 This description, which recalls Aristotle's and Kant's discussions of genius, might ®t the creations of some masters of metaphor, but it is a far cry from the metaphorical competence required for its mastery by the ordinary interpreter.
I rely on some distinction between the metaphorical and the literal and I accept the truism (in a sense yet to be explicated) that the metaphorical depends on the literal. But I shall not defend either of these assumptions at this stage. For one thing, critics who baldly deny the distinction owe us, in my view, a clear statement of what they think they are denying; for another, I cannot yet clearly articulate the distinction I wish to draw without much more groundwork. Indeed, di¨erent notions of the literal will emerge in the coming chapters and, as I'll argue in chapter 8, the notion of the literal is in worse theoretical shape than the metaphorical.