By Krishna P. Singh, Alan I. Soler
A tubular warmth exchanger exemplifies many facets of the problem in designing a strain vessel. excessive or very low working pressures and temperatures, mixed with sharp temperature gradients, and massive alterations within the stiffnesses of adjacent components, are among the legion of stipulations that behoove the eye of the warmth exchanger clothier. Pitfalls in mechanical layout could lead on to a number of operational difficulties, akin to tube-to-tubesheet joint failure, flanged joint leakage, weld cracks, tube buckling, and circulation prompted vibration. inner disasters, akin to cross partition bowing or weld rip-out, cross partition gasket rib blow-out, and impingement actuated tube finish erosion aren't any much less menacing. Designing to prevent such operational perils calls for an intensive grounding in numerous disciplines of mechanics, and a large knowing of the inter courting among the thermal and mechanical functionality of warmth exchangers. but, whereas there are various very good books on warmth ex changer thermal layout, related attempt in mechanical layout has been non-existent. This obvious void has been stuffed by means of an collection of nationwide codes and criteria, significantly the "ASME Boiler and strain Vessel Code" and the "Standards of Tubular Exchanger brands organization. " those records, along with scattered guides, shape the motley compendia of the warmth exchanger designer's reference resource. the subject material essentially beckons a methodical and complete remedy. This booklet is directed in the direction of assembly this need.
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Additional info for Mechanical Design of Heat Exchangers: And Pressure Vessel Components
A) horizontal, (b) vertical, channel down, and (c) vertical, channel up. The horizontal feedwater heater, equipped with a desuperheating zone and an integral drain cooler, is shown in Fig. 4. The tubeside inlet and outlet are arranged in such a manner that the feedwater temperature rise is countercurrent to the enthalpy loss of the heating medium. This requirement of countercurrency is a central requirement to the internal flow arrangement of the heater. The main design object in a heater is to elevate the temperature of the feedwater to the highest possible value.
Flow straighteners (Fig. 1) at the nozzle inlet are found to be quite effective in eliminating rotational flow components and in improving the profile of the velocity field. An effective device to reduce the bundle penetration velocity is the use of an annular distributor. Figure 1. 2 (Photograph 1. k) shows a typical distributor. The large shell is sized to provide the annular space for the fluid to spread out. Suitable slots are cut out in the shell to permit a uniformly diffused entry into the bundle.
Rapid fluctuation in the temperatures of the entering fluids is another source of potential trouble. As will be discussed in Chapter 2, the stresses produced by temperature fluctuations are self-limiting in that failure from one thermal application is not to be expected. However, repeated cycling can cause the material to fail in fatigue. A notable exception to the above statement is the tube-totube sheet joint which, because of slenderness of the "leak path," may fail in even one application. The critical regions which behoove careful consideration of thermal transient conditions are: (i) Tube-to-tubesheet joint: In fixed tubesheet heat exchangers, the tubeto-tubesheet joint loads can reach high values (Chapter 9).