Measuring the Non-Observed Economy - A Handbook by OECD

By OECD

Good-quality, complete nationwide debts are very important for monetary policymaking and study. Exhaustive assurance is tough to accomplish, even if, simply because a few monetary actions can be unlawful, casual, family construction for personal ultimate use, or overlooked as a result of deficiencies within the info assortment procedure. Such actions are acknowledged to represent the non-observed ("hidden," "underground," or "shadow") financial system. This Handbook—the made from collaboration one of the OECD, the IMF, ILO, ISC-CIS —identifies top practices for measuring the non-observed economic climate, in step with overseas criteria (in specific, with the procedure of nationwide money owed, 1993).

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However, for consistency between transactions, other flows and the balance sheets, illegal activities that are distributive in nature also need to be taken into account if they involve redistribution between different institutional sectors. 12. A particular activity cannot always be characterised as exclusively productive or distributive. Productive activities may also have consequences for the distribution of incomes – in particular they are a source of additional income. Distributive activities may also have consequences for the level of GDP if the new distribution of goods and services and of incomes turns out to be more or less efficient than the previous one.

5. 54. 2 might be used if the focal point of the analysis were unreported income from production. 2. 6. 55. Each of these frameworks has limitations in the sense that some of the borderlines between the various types of NOE activities are not distinct conceptually or cannot be easily determined in practice. Furthermore, most of them are geared to a view of the NOE from the production approach and need to be supplemented by analysis from the expenditure side. 56. In summary, a national statistical system should choose or develop an analytical framework that best suits its circumstances, depending upon the nature and extent of underground, illegal, informal sector and household production for own use and the coverage and quality of the basic data collection programme.

18. In addition, the 15th ICLS aimed to ensure that the activities included in the informal sector were as homogeneous as possible both regarding their economic behaviour and the data required to analyse them, and also that these data could be collected in practice. Thus, it introduced further criteria for inclusion. First, an enterprise must have at least some market output. Second, an enterprise that is an employer must satisfy one or more of the following three criteria: • The enterprise is less than a specified size in terms of persons engaged, employees or employees employed on a continuous basis.

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