By Stefan Rein
Lifetime spectroscopy is likely one of the so much delicate diagnostic instruments for the identity and research of impurities in semiconductors. because it is predicated at the recombination procedure, it presents perception into accurately these defects which are correct to semiconductor units equivalent to sun cells. This publication introduces a clear modeling strategy that permits an in depth theoretical assessment of the spectroscopic capability of the various lifetime spectroscopic innovations. some of the theoretical predictions are demonstrated experimentally with the context of a complete research on diverse steel impurities. the standard and consistency of the spectroscopic effects, as defined the following, confirms the wonderful functionality of lifetime spectroscopy.
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Additional resources for Lifetime Spectroscopy: A Method of Defect Characterization in Silicon for Photovoltaic Applications
2 Basic and advanced models for the fundamental semiconductor quantities 27 10 TIC(NA,fi=2) C °C °C 0° 00 50 -5 -1 -1 C 0° 10 Boron-doped Silicon Boron-doped Silicon Standard T-Model Advanced T-Model -3 NA=var. 5 5 10 15 20 25 30 1000/T [1/K] Fig. 9. Majority carrier concentration p0(T) in p-type silicon calculated from the composite model in Eq. 22) as a function of inverse temperature for different doping concentrations under the assumption of the standard (thin solid lines) and the advanced T-model (thick solid lines) for (a) high and (b) low temperatures.
21], is plotted in Fig. 2a as a function of temperature for different doping concentrations. As indicated by the arrows, the onset of freeze-out can be characterized by a transition temperature TFO which strongly depends on the doping concentration NA and the specified threshold value for the ionization level fA (in Fig. 95). Unfortunately, the derivation of an analytical expression for TFO(NA; fA) fails since Eq. 18) is unsolvable for temperature. Nevertheless, a graphical solution can be deduced insofar as an analytical expression for the inverse function NA(TFO; fA) is derived from Eq.
SRH recombination can occur either through bulk defects, induced by impurities or lattice defects, or as a result of surface states, which are typically caused by dangling bonds at the wafer surface. The cases of bulk SRH recombination and surface recombination are treated separately below. As lifetime spectroscopy aims at characterizing impurity-induced bulk defects on the basis of the SRH bulk lifetime, it is necessary to examine the relative importance of the different recombination channels in crystalline silicon, to assess the possibilities of a direct determination of this quantity.