By John Kim (auth.), J. N. Sørensen, E. J. Hopfinger, N. Aubry (eds.)

The dynamics of transitional and turbulent flows is usually ruled by way of geared up constructions with a lifetime for much longer than a attribute time scale of the encircling small-scale turbulence. equipped constructions might seem as secondary flows due to an instability yet they persist in turbulent flows. They appear themselves as eddies or localized vortices and play a big function in e.g. blending and delivery tactics. Al notwithstanding the life of equipped buildings has been printed through many experiments and by way of numerical simulations they're a little elusive, as there's no consensus on how to find them and technically the right way to observe them. lately numerous identity instruments for analysing advanced flows were built. those instruments comprise numerous types of the right kind Orthog onal Decomposition (POD) approach, wavelet transforms, trend recogni tion, and so on. whilst, advancements in experimental recommendations have made to be had facts that extra necessitate effective detection tools. A widespread instance is the Particle snapshot Velocimetry (PIV) process from which complicated spatio-temporal circulate info could be received. a fascinating function of a few of the identity concepts is they shape the root for diminished types during which dynamical approaches should be studied in info. From stories of dissipative dynamical platforms it's been printed that, in part house, transitional and turbulent flows could be pointed out through their low-dimensional behaviour. therefore, making use of facts from experiments or nu merical simulations to shape modes dwelling on finite-dimensional attractors could dramatically decrease computing costs.

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**Additional info for IUTAM Symposium on Simulation and Identification of Organized Structures in Flows: Proceedings of the IUTAM Symposium held in Lyngby, Denmark, 25–29 May 1997**

**Example text**

Two DYNAMICS OF NEAR-WALL STRUCTURES 47 observations are important. The first is that ny does not contribute to the continuity equation, so that we can modify it without directly perturbing the transverse velocity components or the streamwise vortices. b). 2. Damping the streaks The simplest experiment would be to damp the streaks with a filtering function below a given distance from the wall. The equations of motions would be multiplied would be integrated as usual but, after each step, by 1+0: 1-0: ] (3) F(y) = [ -2- + -2- tanh4(y2 /6 2 - 1) , ny which leaves unchanged the upper wall, but damps the streaks in the lower one by a factor 0:.

Corresponding structures can be detected applying a Karhunen-Loeve-decomposition of the velocity field. The enhancement of the vortex roll-up leads to a faster growing of the separated and reattaching shear layer, and the mean recirculation length is reduced by 12 % if a perturbation amplitude of 50% of Uoo is applied. The stream-wise vortices of the incoming turbulent boundary layer are weakened in the case of forcing due to the destruction of the streaks by the blowing/suction procedure and they are convected over the flow obstacle.

Where the jets point forward, the wall shear is higher than the average, while the opposite is true at the "low velocity" streaks where they point backwards. The quasi-streamwise vortices are slightly tilted away from the wall, and each one stays in the near-wall region for only x+ ~ 200 [7]. Several vortices are associated with each streak, with a longitudinal spacing of the order of x+ ~ 400 [10]. It has long been understood that the vortices cause the streaks by advecting the mean velocity gradient [2], and that this process results in a higher mean shear at the wall, being the immediate cause of the turbulent 3Wall units are defined as usual in terms of the wall stress T, by normalising with the kinematic viscosity v and with the friction velocity Ur = (T / P)1/2 DYNAMICS OF NEAR-WALL STRUCTURES 43 wall drag [15J.