Introduction to Commutative Algebra by M. F. Atiyah, I. G. MacDonald

By M. F. Atiyah, I. G. MacDonald

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Integral membrane proteins, membrane lipids and soluble cisternal protein formed by the ER traverse the Golgi and are targeted to their appropriate destinations by this organelle. Three major routes of export from the Golgi occur: 1) constitutive delivery of membrane-bound vesicles to the plasma membrane; 2) formation of secretory vesicles whose exocytosis is regulated; and 3) formation of lysosomes. Specific targeting signals are associated with the formation of lysosomal vesicles and secretory vesicles; however, the pathway from the Golgi apparatus to the plasma membrane appears to be largely constitutive and unregulated, forming a default pathway.

Clathrin-coated vesicles comprise a major pathway in which specific extracellular molecules are recognized and bound to the plasma membrane prior to internalization. This process involves membrane receptors, which are integral membrane proteins of the plasma membrane that recognize specific ligands. The best understood example of this process involves how cholesterol is taken up by cells. In the circulation, cholesterol is packaged in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles, which are small par- 3 2 — Holy ticles composed of protein and cholesterol esters.

2 2 — Hyman Polarity The chemical directionality of a nucleic acid or protein chain. Primary Structure The precise order of nucleotide bases or amino acids in a nucleic acid or protein chain, respectively. Promoter Binding site in the DNA for transcription factors and RNA polymerase; The on/off switch for gene expression. Proteome Entire collection of proteins in a cell or organism. Proteomics The study of the entire ensemble of proteins in a cell or organism. Quarternary Structure Level of structural organization when two or more individual protein chains (subunits) interact to form an active complex.

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