By Charles Fayette Taylor
This revised variation of the author’s vintage paintings at the internal-combustion engine contains adjustments and additions in engine layout and keep watch over which were attributable to the realm petroleum trouble, the following emphasis on gas financial system, and the criminal restraints on pollution. the basics and the topical association, besides the fact that, stay an identical. The analytic instead of simply descriptive remedy of exact engine cycles, the exhaustive stories of air ability, warmth movement, friction, and the results of cylinder measurement, and the emphasis on software were preserved. those are the fundamental traits that experience made the author’s paintings critical to multiple new release of engineers and architects of internal-combustion engines, in addition to to lecturers and graduate scholars within the fields of strength, internal-combustion engineering, and basic desktop layout.
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Extra info for Internal-Combustion Engine in Theory and Practice, Volume 1 - Thermodynamics, Fluid Flow, Performance
Since the process of combustion changes the properties of all working fluids to an appreciable extent, it is necessary to consider separately the thermodynamic properties before and after combustion. T H E WORKIN G FLUID BEFORE COMBUSTION At the start of compression atmospheric air constitutes the major portion of the working fluid in all internal-combustion engines. In gas turbines atmospheric air alone is the medium throughout the compression process. I n reciprocating engines, a t the beginning of the inlet stroke, the cylinder always contains a certain fraction of residual gas, that is, gas left over from the previous cycle.
Next, heat is added a t constant volume to increase the pressure to 3. Reversible adiabatic expansion takes place to the original volume a t point 4, and the medium is then cooled a t constant volume to its original pressure. THE AIR CYCLE 25 1400 8000 3 1200 7000 a 5 1000 6000 E q- 800 @ ZJ 600 4000 ! 30 Entropy, Btu/Ib 0 2 6 8 1 0 1 2 Volume, 1 Ib air, ft3 4 I 16 Fig 2-1. 8(r - l ) / r ;E = zero a t 520"R. Figure 2-1 also shows the same cycle plotted on coordinates of internal energy vs entropy.
Fortunately, the problem can be reduced to manageable proportions by confining our consideration to air and the more usual types of fuel and by using certain assumptions which simplify the procedure without introducing serious numerical errors. COMPOSITION O F T H E ATMOSPHERE Dry atmospheric air consists of 23y0 oxygen and 76% nitrogen by weight, plus small amounts of C02 and “rare” gases, principal among 100 80 60 u. $ 40 + 3 i? 030 0:060 Lb moisture/lb air Fig 3-1. Moisture content of air. 189) which is argon.