Global Theory from Kant to Hardt and Negri by G. Browning

By G. Browning

Global thought represents an influential and renowned technique of figuring out modern social and political phenomena. Human identification and social duties are thought of in a world context and within the gentle of an international human . a world viewpoint is believed to be new and to supersede previous social conception. besides the fact that, if modern worldwide thought is influential, its identification, assumptions and novelty are debatable. Global conception from Kant to Hardt and Negri scrutinises worldwide conception via reading how modern international theorists at the same time draw upon and critique previous smooth theories. It re-thinks modern worldwide rules by way of touching on them to the social considered Kant, Hegel and Marx, and in so doing highlights divergent ambiguous facets of latest international theories, in addition to the continued effect of the information of Kant, Hegel and Marx.

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Their lack of reflection on the epistemological limits within which their readings of history operate is ironic given the emphasis that a number of global theorists place upon the powers of reflection of human beings and the reflexivity of reasoning agents. In specifying the underlying conditions of globalisation, global theorists recognise how global development is shaped by the capacity of human being to abstract from concrete involvement in practices and institutions to make connections across spatial and temporal horizons.

They see their distinctiveness as residing in their formulating the project in a distinctly global context. They face problems in relating global norms to the specificities of multiple local contexts which rehearse the practical difficulties that are encountered in Kant’s development of cosmopolitanism. While Kant’s moral and political standpoint is approached standardly via his formal conception of the universality of reason and the general obligatoriness of moral rules, Kant’s aesthetic theory highlights his sensitivity to questions of judgement and suggests an Kant: Cosmopolitan Reason and Global Responsibility 39 alternative aesthetic response to the complexities of how political and international theory and practice may be related.

Hegel’s critique of Kant’s formalism, however, highlights the contestability of all aspects of political morality and points to the retrospective role of reason in assessing actual historical and cultural developments, rather than setting criteria independently of empirical references. The meaning of agency and the specification of an agent’s powers and rights are constructed, not in the sense of a Rawlsian or Kantian abstract thought experiment, but because human qualities are only revealed and developed in the context of cultural development.

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