By Darrell Ebbing, Steven D. Gammon
The 9th variation of this market-leading textual content has been considerably revised to fulfill the speedily altering educational calls for of basic Chemistry professors. recognized for its rigorously constructed, completely built-in, step by step method of challenge fixing, basic Chemistry is helping scholars grasp quantitative abilities and construct an enduring conceptual realizing of key chemical ideas. The 9th version keeps this hallmark technique and builds upon the conceptual concentration via key new positive factors and revisions.
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Extra info for General Chemistry (9th Edition)
According to Einstein, mass and energy are equivalent. Thus, when energy is lost as heat, mass is also lost, but changes of mass in chemical reactions (billionths of a gram) are too small to detect. Antoine Lavoisier (1743–1794), a French chemist, was one of the ﬁrst to insist on the use of the balance in chemical research. By weighing substances before and after chemical change, he demonstrated the law of conservation of mass, which states that the total mass remains constant during a chemical change (chemical reaction).
8 Choose a substance and give several of its physical properties and several of its chemical properties. 9 Give examples of an element, a compound, a heterogeneous mixture, and a homogeneous mixture. 10 What phases or states of matter are present in a glass of bubbling carbonated beverage that contains ice cubes? 11 What distinguishes an element from a compound? Can a compound also be an element? 12 What is meant by the precision of a measurement? How is it indicated? 13 Two rules are used to decide how to round the result of a calculation to the correct number of signiﬁcant ﬁgures.
Experiment and Explanation Experiment and explanation are the heart of chemical research. A chemist makes observations under circumstances in which variables, such as temperature and amounts of substances, can be controlled. An experiment is an observation of natural phenomena carried out in a controlled manner so that the results can be duplicated and rational conclusions obtained. In the chapter opening it was mentioned that Rosenberg studied the effects of electricity on bacterial growth. Temperature and amounts of nutrients in a given volume of bacterial medium are important variables in such experiments.