From P2P to Web Services and Grids: Peers in a Client/Server by Ian J. Taylor

By Ian J. Taylor

ÄPeers In a shopper Server globalô presents a accomplished assessment of rising peer-to-peer (P2P) applied sciences that experience revolutionized the best way we predict approximately allotted computing and the web. those applied sciences are in comparison to substitute recommendations, such a lot particularly internet prone and Grid computing but in addition different applied sciences, reminiscent of client/server established platforms and agent applied sciences. a variety of different middleware and application-based applied sciences are coated, resembling JXTA, Jini, Globus, internet companies, OGSA, J2EE, Napster and Gnutella, with an emphasis given at the structure hired and defense version selected. every one expertise and its functions are analyzed within the context of the measure of centralization or decentralization they hire. A ensuing taxonomy is created that offers the reader a context within which to think about the main complicated and large ranging disbursed platforms on hand this present day, and gives them with a vital reference textual content for designing new dispensed platforms.

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1 Hubs, Switches, Bridges, Access Points and Routers This section gives a brief overview of the various devices used to partition a network, which gives the context for the following two sections on NAT and firewalls often employed within a P2P network. Briefly, the critical distinction between these devices is the level or layer at which they operate within the International Standard Organization’s Open System Interconnect (ISO/OSI) model, which defines seven network layers [98]. • Hubs: A hub is a repeater that works at the physical (lowest) layer of OSI.

2 The P2P Environment This section covers the technology that makes the P2P environment so difficult to work within. In Fig. , they live behind NAT routing systems and firewalls). In this section, a background is given into some of the technologies behind P2P networks, which helps set a more realistic P2P scene. The first section makes a brief excursion into switching technology for networks. The second section describes a particular subset of these that contains NAT systems. Lastly, firewalls are discussed.

This allows the number of machines on the Internet to increase past the physical limit. A NAT system converts local addresses within the stub domain into one Internet address. A network address translation system (see Fig. 3) allows a single device, such as a router, to act as an agent between the Internet (public network) and a local (private) network. This means that only a single, unique IP address is required to represent an entire group of computers. The internal network is usually a LAN; commonly referred to as the stub domain.

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