By Hans J. Michelmann, Panayotis Soldatos
This can be the 1st comparative examine of an more and more vital phenomenon: the overseas position and actions of part devices of significant liberal democratic federal states. The paintings identifies universal topics and explores the explanations for the proliferation of paradiplomatic actions by means of those non-traditional actors at the foreign scene. studying the character and background of overseas coverage federalism, the paintings makes a speciality of the overseas position of subnational devices in Austria, Australia, Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, Switzerland, and the us, and assesses the results of those paradiplomatic actions for the behavior of overseas coverage in each one federation.
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Extra resources for Federalism and International Relations: The Role of Subnational Units
O Nov. r 9 8 6 . r 7. 'La Confederation intervient chaque fois qu'il y a u n contact avec une capitale etrangere, alors que le canton peut entrer directement en contact avec de representants de collectivites locales comparables' ( l i Oct. ; author's translation, italics added). There exists today an Association of European Border Regions and, since i 97 5 , a European Regional Development Plan, established by the Commission of the European Community. Both Strasburg and Brussels (as well as Luxemburg) are centres for many of these regional and interregional institutions and programmes.
However, it is also true that in the case of a co-operative paradiplomacy (see below), policy segmentation can be reduced to a minimum. Yet, policy segmentation does not always lead to actor seg mentation. Federated units enjoying a dominant or merely strong position with a federal system can use it to their own advantage, thereby accommodating themselves with the federal machinery of foreign policy, at least fo r some issues. In Canada, for example, Ontario, because of its dominant position in the Canadian federa tion, often felt a lesser need for direct foreign-policy involvement than did Quebec, or, for that matter, than did some western provinces.
I. D . Duchacek, The Territorial Dimension o f Politics Within, A mong, and Across Nations (Boulder, Colorado, 1 98 6 ) ; this section contains several paragraphs and research data contained in the above book's chapters 8 and 9 . r o . In h i s study 'Federalism and International Relations', p. 5 62, Michelmann emphasized the frequent travels of the Lander ministers abroad. Even though Bavaria and its former premier Franz Josef Strauss represent a special case, the political rather than economic aspect of the Bavarian-Chinese contacts should be noted.