By R. Ning
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Additional info for Expanding Issues in Desalination
Most of the harmful algal blooms from 1988 to 2008 in Oman were caused by some type of dinoflagellates. Seawater desalination plants, power plants and other plants that use seawater for cooling purposes were forced to close during the last red tide in the Arabian Gulf region to avoid the fouling and blockage problems. Algae blooms may occur in freshwater as well as marine environments. Typically only one or a few phytoplankton species are involved and some blooms may be recognized by discoloration of the water resulting from the high density of pigmented cells.
2 Actiflo Ballasting refers to the use of materials added during flocculation, that increase the density of flocs resulting in faster settlement. The ACTIFLO® process is a high rate settling process that combines the advantages of ballasted flocculation and lamella clarification (figure 35). The aim of Actiflo is to remove suspended solids, reduce turbidity and remove dissolved organic water. The use of microsand gives the Actiflo® process the advantage of treating a wide range of raw water. Density and shape of microsand particles increase the flocculation and settling efficiencies.
4 Algae One of main applications of DAF is for the removal of algae. Algal species 41 A Large Review of the Pre Treatment typically are characterized by a negative surface charge in natural water environments. In the work done by Bernhardt and Clasen (Bernhardt & Clasen, 1991), algal destabilization by charge neutralization was achieved through chemical coagulation and flocculation. Maximum filterability of suspended algae was observed when algal cells were destabilized and in aggregate form. Poor removal of algae (diatoms, green algae, flagellates, blue green algae) can lead to clogging of granular media filters and short filter runs.