By Y. M. Xie, G. P. Steven (auth.)
Evolutionary Structural Optimization (ESO) is a layout procedure in keeping with the straightforward notion of progressively removal inefficient fabric from a constitution because it is being designed. via this system, the ensuing constitution will evolve in the direction of its optimal form. the newest ideas and result of ESO are offered the following, illustrated through a number of transparent and distinct examples. Sections conceal the elemental elements of the tactic, the applying to a number of load situations and a number of aid environments, frequency optimization, stiffness and displacement constraints, buckling, jointed body constructions, form optimization, and pressure aid. this can be by means of a bit describing Evolve97, a software program package deal so that it will enable readers to attempt the guidelines of ESO themselves and to unravel their optimization difficulties. This software program is supplied on a working laptop or computer diskette which accompanies the book.
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Extra info for Evolutionary Structural Optimization
In the previous examples the ESO method performs both shape and topology optimizations simultaneously. If we only allow material to be nibbled away from the boundaries, the ESO will be doing just shape optimization. One interesting example of using the such an ESO method for shape optimization is given by Querin (1997), who seeks to fmd the optimal shape for an object Basic Evolutionary Structural Optimization Fig. 15. Initial model for an object under gravity load. 16. ESO solutions for an object under gravity load: (a) steady state 15; (b) steady state 20; (c) steady state 25.
The only loading on this object is the gravity. 05%, we apply the evolutionary procedure to the model. 16 shows the shapes of the object at steady states 15,20 and 25, respectively. By removing elements from the boundaries based on the stress level, we obtain shapes with uniform stress on the surface. 16 remind us of the shape of certain fruits such as plums and cherries. It is indicated that nature also evolves shapes that lead to uniform surface stress. Indeed this is the main objective of the extensive research of Mattheck and his co-workers (Mattheck 1990a; Mattheck 1990b; Mattheck et al.
It is expected that reducing the thickness of the element with the smallest sensitivity number will result in the smallest change in the displacement. 21); Step 4: Reduce the thicknesses of a number of elements which have the lowest sensitivity numbers; Step 5: Repeat Steps 2 to 4 until the displacement constraint can no longer be satisfied. 17) may be employed to calculate a weighted average of the sensitivity numbers, which can then be used in Step 3. The number of elements subjected to thickness reduction is determined by the step size At and the prescribed material removal ratio (MRR), defined as the amount (volume or weight) of material to be removed at each iteration over the total initial material.