European Political Facts 1848–1918 by Chris Cook

By Chris Cook

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ITALY After the Congress of Vienna there were 8 main units: the Kingdom of Sardinia, including Piedmont-Savoy and Genoa; the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies; the Papal States; the Grand-Duchy of Tuscany; the Duchy of Lucca; the Duchy of Parma; the Duchy of Modena; the Austrian territory of Lombardy-Venetia. In none of these was there any permanent parliament. Legislatures were provided for by constitutions granted in 1820 and 1848, but in both years the grant was to appease a liberal revolt and the constitutions lapsed when the risings were suppressed.

The Erfurt parliament had acted without being recognized by Austria; the Federal Diet was reconvened without being recognized by Prussia until the Olmutz agreement was signed on 29 Nov 50 and was held to imply acceptance of the Diet's authority. The Federal Diet continued to operate until 1866, when the Germanic Confederation came to an end with the Austro-Prussian war. The parliament of the North German Confederation which was formed 49 EUROPEAN POLITICAL FACTS 1848-1918 after the Austro-Prussian war was elected in May 67.

It provided for a bicameral parliament and a responsible ministry. · The upper house had members elected by the provincial councils from among those holding high offices or paying heavy taxes. The term was 9 years, 54 PARLIAMENTS one-third retiring every 3. The Chamber of Deputies had one member for every 45,000 of the people, elected for a 4-year term by all male citizens over 23 paying one or more direct tax. Members must be at least 30. Only the Chamber of Deputies and the ministers might propose legislation or amendments, except on occasions when the State Council suggested measures to the King.

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