Environmental Waste Management by Ram Chandra

By Ram Chandra

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The liquor (white liquor) comprising these two chemicals is mixed with the wood chips in a reaction vessel (digester). The products consist of wood fibers (pulp) and liquor that contains the dissolved lignin; typically termed as black liquor. The chemical process results in approximately 50% yield of pulp. The residual lignin content in pulp is measured in terms of “Kappa number,” which is directly proportional to the lignin content of the pulp. The liquor generated in the pulping stage is processed at recovery boiler for recovery of chemicals and heat.

Carbon serves primarily as an energy source for the microorganisms, while a small fraction of the carbon is incorporated to the microbial cells. Nitrogen is critical for microbial population growth, as it is a constituent of protein that forms over 50% of dry bacterial cell mass. If nitrogen is limited, microbial populations will remain small and it will take longer to decompose the available carbon. Excess nitrogen, beyond the microbial requirements, is often lost from the system as ammonia gas.

Organic agriculture has continued to gain more ground all over the world for the sustainability and safety of its farm produce. The crops produced from organic agriculture are expensive. But with the increased supply of compost fertilizer in large quantity and low price to farmers, the price of organic food could drop drastically. 9 Challenges of Composting/Research Needed/Work to Be Done There are several problems linked to the composting of industrial waste which either affect the process or the environment.

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