By Michael P. Bishop, Helgi Björnsson, Wilfried Haeberli, Johannes Oerlemans, John F. Shroder, Martyn Tranter, Vijay P. Singh, Pratap Singh, Umesh K. Haritashya
The earth’s cryosphere, together with snow, glaciers, ice caps, ice sheets, ice cabinets, sea ice, river and lake ice, and permafrost, comprises approximately seventy five% of the earth’s clean water. It exists at just about all latitudes, from the tropics to the poles, and performs a necessary position in controlling the worldwide weather method. It additionally offers direct seen proof of the impact of weather swap, and, for this reason, calls for right figuring out of its advanced dynamics. This encyclopedia usually makes a speciality of a number of the features of snow, ice and glaciers, but in addition covers different cryospheric branches, and offers up to date info and easy ideas on appropriate issues. It comprises alphabetically prepared and professionally written, finished and authoritative educational articles by means of recognized foreign specialists in person fields. The encyclopedia incorporates a wide spectrum of themes, starting from the atmospheric procedures chargeable for snow formation; transformation of snow to ice and alterations of their homes; type of ice and glaciers and their around the globe distribution; glaciation and ice a while; glacier dynamics; glacier floor and subsurface features; geomorphic techniques and panorama formation; hydrology and sedimentary platforms; permafrost degradation; dangers attributable to cryospheric alterations; and tendencies of glacier retreat at the international scale besides the impression of weather switch. This booklet can function a resource of reference on the undergraduate and graduate point and support to raised comprehend snow, ice and glaciers. it's going to even be an imperative device containing really good literature for geologists, geographers, climatologists, hydrologists, and water assets engineers; in addition to when you are engaged within the perform of agricultural and civil engineering, earth sciences, environmental sciences and engineering, atmosphere administration, and different correct topics.
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Additional info for Encyclopedia of Snow, Ice and Glaciers (Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series)
Formation process Ablation depressions have been firstly documented as glaciological landforms of heat radiation from the Himalayas (Strachey, 1847). Oestreich (1906) introduced the nongenetic term of “Randtälchen” (small marginal valleys) for these lateroglacial depressions. Visser (1938) has investigated the lateroglacial landforms in a more systematic approach and recognized that they are characteristic key forms of subtropical high-mountain areas. He introduced the term “ablation valley” (Ablationstal), but it has been subsequently widely confused with the landform of a “lateral moraine valley” (Röthlisberger, 1986; Hewitt, 1993).
Dk Philip R. uk Daniel J. com John C. edu Duncan J. Quincey Institute of Geography and Earth Sciences Penglais Campus Aberystwyth University Aberystwyth, Wales SY23 3DB UK Camilo Rada Centro de Estudios Científicos, CECS Arturo Prat 514 Valdivia Chile Y. S. O. org P. in Netra R. edu CONTRIBUTORS Helen E. nz Alan W. edu Jeffrey Ridley Met Office, Hadley Centre FitzRoy Road Exeter EX1 3PB UK George A. cl Gerard H. is xxxv xxxvi Bob E. O. edu Arun B. O. org John F. edu CONTRIBUTORS Martin J. is A.
Adfreeze (adfreeze strength) is the shear or tensile strength that has to be overcome to separate two objects that are bonded together by ice. ” AERIAL PHOTOGRAMMETRY FOR GLACIAL MONITORING Martin Kappas GIS and Remote Sensing Section, Institute of Geography, Georg-August University Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany Definition Before starting with the main text, some photogrammetry terms and some standard technical terms of photogrammetry are introduced. ” It belongs to the broader field of remote sensing.