Electron Microscopy of Polymers by Goerg H. Michler

By Goerg H. Michler

There are many books on electron microscopy, in spite of the fact that, the learn of polymers utilizing EM necessitates certain thoughts, precautions and education equipment, together with ultramicrotomy. This ebook discusses the final features of some of the ideas of EM, together with scanning strength microscopy (AFM). the appliance of those thoughts to the research of morphology and houses, rather micromechanical houses, is defined intimately. Examples from all periods of polymers are presented.

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On the other hand, modern TEMs are often also used for analytical investigations, and so with the aid of the illumination system a small electron probe appropriate for X-ray microanalysis, convergent beam electron diffraction techniques or scanning transmission mode must be produced. Therefore, a typical illumination system in a modern TEM consists of three condenser lenses and also includes the upper part of the objective as an objective prefield lens, and sometimes an additional condenser minilens is arranged between the third condenser lens and the objective prefield lens.

The chromatic aberration coefficient C c of a magnetic objective lens is usually slightly smaller numerically than the focal length. Chromatic aberration is a lens defect that degrades the image whenever electrons in the beam cease to be monoenergetic. This may be the result of electrons starting from the gun with a spread of energies, or of the accelerating voltage fluctuating with time, or of the electron beam losing energy through collisions when passing through the specimen. In modern instruments the stability of the accelerating voltage and also that of the lens current, which has a similar influence on chromatic aberration, is so good that we don’t have to worry about the chromatic aberration caused by the illumination system, as it is insignificant when compared with the energy losses associated with the electrons that are transmitted through a sample.

2 Fundamentals of Electron Optics and Instrumentation 21 Fig. 2. Illustration of the two fundamental features of image formation using a ray diagram for a finite object (represented as an arrow). The three important distances in the diagram are labelled u, v and f . All rays emerging from a point in the object plane are gathered by the lens and converge to the conjugated point in the image plane. On the other hand, all parallel rays starting at different points in the object plane are focussed in the back-focal plane of the lens the electron-optical axis results in a focus that is positioned on this axis; this is known as the focus of the lens.

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