Economics of water resources planning by James and lee

By James and lee

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According to Stigler: A competitive enterprise system allocates resources with maximum efficiency. If resources are used where they obtain the highest rates of renumeration, if they are employed efficiently in these industries, and if they produce the commodities that consumers most desire, output is as large as possible. 1 Ebenstein says, The economy justification of competition is that it keeps everybodyworker, businessman, investor-on his toes, constantly alert to changes in the market, and constantly on the outlook for ways to increase his efficiency and thereby improve his chances in the market.

The first year water is delivered, the acreage and increased yield of each crop can be used to predict a project output of X tons of peaches, Y tons of tomatoes, and Z tons of alfalfa. In a similar manner, X, Y, and Z may be predicted for each subsequent year of project life. The outputs can be expected to increase steadily in the early years as more and more land is irrigated. Later, they may be expected to fluctuate with changing weather and other factors which influence crop yield. 2-3 CASH FLOW DIAGRAM Having identified the physical consequences of each alternative, it is necessary to decide which ones are relevant to the analysis.

The four conceptually correct discounting techniques are (1) the present-worth method, (2) the rate-of-return method, (3) the benefit-cost ratio method, and (4) the annual-cost method. Each method, if used correctly, leads to the same evaluation of the relative merit. However, each has advantages and disadvantages. 1 George E. , vol. 35, no. 11 (November, 1965), pp. 86-87. 28 ENGINEERING ECONOMY 2-9 PRESENT-WORTH METHOD The present-worth method selects the project with the largest present worth PW of the discounted algebraic sum of benefits minus costs over its life.

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