By Gary Clyde Hufbauer
Financial sanctions proceed to play an enormous position within the reaction to terrorism, nuclear proliferation, army conflicts, and different overseas coverage crises. yet negative layout and implementation of sanctions rules frequently suggest they fall wanting their wanted results. This landmark learn, first released in 1985, delves into the wealthy event of sanctions within the twentieth century to reap classes on the best way to use sanctions extra successfully. This quantity - now with ease on hand in a paperback structure - is the 3rd and multiplied version of this commonly pointed out examine. The authors' distinct database on sanctions now covers virtually two hundred case reports. The research is considerably revised to take account of the hot demanding situations dealing with policymakers because the finish of the chilly struggle and the acceleration of globalization of exchange and monetary markets.
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Extra resources for Economic Sanctions Reconsidered
In the 1990s the emergence of nonstate terrorist entities, particularly Osama bin Laden’s al Qaeda network, prompted new measures against nonstate actors. In 1995 and 1996 legislative acts gave the executive branch the power to impose financial sanctions, including asset freezes and transfer prohibitions, upon specially designated terrorists (SDTs) disrupting the Middle East peace process and on foreign terrorist organizations (FTOs). Though these measures targeted al Qaeda members, the US Treasury did not identify any of their US assets prior to 2001.
The measures were triggered by Mugabe’s repression of the political opposition and refusal to accept EU election observers. Five days later, the United States barred Mugabe and senior members of his government and their families from entering the United States. In July 2002 the European Union extended its measures to include 52 more government officials. In March 2003 US President George W. Bush issued an executive order barring financial transactions with Mugabe and 76 other Zimbabwean officials.
Extrapolated from 1913 data ($21 billion). e. 8 billion). f. 7 billion). 5; Yates (1959); United Nations, Yearbook of International Trade Statistics, various issues; International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics, various issues. Plan of the Book Chapter 2 introduces the analytical framework and the explanatory variables that we use to examine each sanctions episode. We explain our methodology for defining a sanctions episode, its duration, and its outcome and provide an overview of the variables documented in the case studies.