By Miriam Erez
Loads of study has lately been accomplished on habit and the association of labor, so much of which has considered it from an ethnocentric viewpoint. during this paintings, Erez and Earley exhibit how this is often inadequate to strengthen a world idea of labor behavior--it necessitates the inclusion of a cultural point of view. Solidly grounding their paintings within the fields of psychology, administration, and anthropology, the authors suggest a brand new theoretical framework using individual's self-concept as a way of linking cultural ideals and social interplay to emergent paintings habit. The publication comprises particular suggestions for structuring paintings environments and managerial techniques to compare cultural practices and improve productiveness within the place of work, making it an important reference for students, scholars, and pros.
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Extra resources for Culture, Self-Identity, and Work
For example, comparative measures of stress and health problems indicate that Western individualistic countries suffer from these problems more than do collectivistic cultures and that there is a trade-off relationship between affluence and stress in Western countries (Henry & Stephens, 1977). Keeping GNP/capita constant, the advantage of collective groups in reducing health problems and prolonging life expectancy is evident in Israeli kibbutzim. Research data collected between 1975 and 1980 by Leviatan and Cohen (1985) demonstrated that life expectancy among elderly people in the kibbutzim was significantly higher than among elderly people in Israel's urban areas.
The interdependent self entails "seeing oneself as part of an encompassing social relationship, recognizing that one's behavior is determined, contingent on, and, to a large extent organized by, what the actor perceives to be thoughts, feelings, and actions of others in the relationship" (227). The focus of the interdependent self is its relationship to others. Empirical findings demonstrate that people from East Asia have a greater tendency to describe themselves in terms that reflect their collective interdependent self than do Europeans or North Americans (Bond & Cheung, 1983; Trafimow, Triandis 32 Culture, Self-Identity, and Work & Goto, 1991).
The lack of an adequate theoretical framework for understanding the moderating effect of culture has led to the development of the present model. A development of a new theory is not an end in itself. Rather, a better theory is a means to an end. A theoretical model should generate a series of steps toward the diagnosis/solution of a problem (Campbell, 1990). Conceptual models can be improved by using three criteria: they can be derived analytically; they can come about as a result of evaluations by experts in the field of study; and they can be evaluated empirically (Campbell).