By Alec Groysman
This ebook addresses corrosion difficulties and their recommendations at amenities within the oil refining and petrochemical undefined, together with cooling water and boiler feed water devices. extra, it describes and analyzes corrosion regulate activities, corrosion tracking, and corrosion administration. Corrosion difficulties are a perennial factor within the oil refining and petrochemical undefined, as they result in a deterioration of the practical homes of metal apparatus and damage the surroundings – either one of which must be safe for the sake of present and destiny generations. consequently, this e-book examines and analyzes commonplace and odd corrosion failure instances and their prevention at refineries and petrochemical amenities, together with issues of: pipelines, tanks, furnaces, distillation columns, absorbers, warmth exchangers, and pumps. additionally, it describes naphthenic acid corrosion, tension corrosion cracking, hydrogen damages, sulfidic corrosion, microbiologically caused corrosion, erosion-corrosion, and corrosion fatigue taking place at refinery devices. ultimately, fouling, corrosion and cleansing are mentioned during this book.
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Additional resources for Corrosion Problems and Solutions in Oil Refining and Petrochemical Industry
Depending on composition of sour water (especially NH4HS concentration) and flow velocity, it can become extremely corrosive to carbon steel and copper alloys. 8 m/s [10–12]. The H2S partial pressure influences signiﬁcantly corrosion rate of alloys, especially at higher NH4HS concentrations, and even affects stainless steel 20Cb-3 and nickel alloys Incolloy 825, Inconel 600, and Inconel 625. 1 m/s. When the H2S partial pressure is 7 bar, corrosion rate of carbon steel is 1 mm/year under the same conditions .
When air enters into atmospheric or vacuum distillation system, hydrogen sulﬁde can be oxidized to sulfate ions (SO42−) which decrease pH values and increase corrosion of carbon steel. Evidence of this is that sometimes hundreds of ppm SO42− are determined in atmospheric and vacuum water condensate (see Sect. 3). During shutdowns, it is impossible to isolate equipment from penetration of air (oxygen, water vapor, sometimes aggressive ions, such as chlorides). Thus, most equipment is exposed to aggressive air and uncontrolled atmospheric corrosion usually occurs during shutdowns.
Concentrated H2SO4 vigorously absorbs moisture. Consequently, it is important to keep containers with concentrated H2SO4 hermetically closed from the atmosphere and any source of water. This is the reason why concentrated H2SO4 is used for drying of gases, but not H2, because H2SO4 can be reduced by H2. It is forbidden to wash with water carbon steel piping and tanks containing concentrated H2SO4, because it becomes diluted and very corrosive. Most organic coatings are not resistant to concentrated H2SO4.