Control of Release of Fission Products by Severe Accident

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Deposition of particles in a reactor containment will usually result in the particles being trapped in water. This trapping is usually thought to result in permanently removing the particles and its associated radioactivity from the inventory of materials that can leak from the containment or be released suddenly from the plant should the containment rupture. Experiments and analyses have shown that even vigorous “steam flashing“ from hot water pools in the event of rapid containment depressurisation is insufficient to resuspend substantial fractions of the radioactive particles trapped in water.

This is a report on an outstanding experimental study of the behavior of bubbles injected into pools through quencher orifices. A-12 H. Karwat, Status of the Bubbler Condenser Containment System for the Reactors of the VVER-440/213 Type, OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, Issy-les-Moulineaux, France, 1998, NEA/CSNI/R(98)13.   VI. 1. Introduction Discussions in this chapter are on the chemistry of iodine and the mitigation measures that can be taken to reduce the potential for iodine release from a containment following a reactor accident.

Addition of coolant has, however, a profound effect on mitigation of radionuclide release even if coolant additions are insufficient to cool the fuel. Indeed, analyses have suggested that coolant additions during critical stages of the in-vessel progression of an accident may accelerate core degradation. Still, these coolant additions may limit the amounts of radioactive material released from the fuel that passes through the reactor coolant system and reaches the containment. This mitigation comes about by several processes: • • • coolant droplets sweep out radionuclide vapors and aerosols in the reactor coolant system; flooded release pathways decontaminate gases laden with radioactive vapours and aerosols; and cooled structural surfaces in the reactor coolant system act as deposition surfaces for radioactive aerosol particles.

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