By Professor Dr. med. Alexis Labhart (auth.)
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Additional info for Clinical Endocrinology: Theory and Practice
Thyroxine and triiodothyronine are probably bound by peptide bonds to this large glycoprotein molecule. Release implies the expulsion of the hormone from its endocrine cell into the extracellular fluid. We have at present only limited information about the complex process by which hormones, which are often poorly fat-soluble, are transferred through the lipid-rich cell membrane. LACY (1967) was able to show by electron A-chain I s H2N~COOH B-chain Insulin Fig. 2. Biosynthesis of insulin according to D.
The process of hormone release must occupy a central position in the transfer of information by hormones, as underscored by the following reasoning: Most hormones have a fixed peripheral disposal rate, or half-life, once they have left the endocrine cell. Therefore, a given hormone concentration in the extracellular fluid which is crucial for the information to be conveyed can only be achieved and maintained by adjusting the rate of hormone release. Consequently, hormone release must be a delicately controlled process.
He showed that liver-cell membranes actually did destroy insulin in vitro but that this destruction was not linked with the binding of the hormone to the receptor. The two processes, binding and destruction, were shown to be entirely independent. Analogous results were reported for the binding of ACTH to adrenal membranes (LEFKOWITZ, 1970) and for several other polypeptide hormones (see short review in CUATRECASAS, 1971 b). RODBELL (1971 a) reported that 125I-Iabeled glucagon binds to isolated liver-plasma membranes.