By Khorshed M. Pavri
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Extra resources for Challenge of AIDS
This early-phase mild type of illness (which resembles several other acute viral illnesses) is the main reason why some scientists—especially an American retrovirologist, Prof. all for AIDS. However, the peculiar nature of HIV and, in fact, all retroviruses (reverse transcription), combined with various epidemiological features have convinced most scientists and doctors that HIV is indeed the major culprit although many other (infectious and non-infectious) factors may be aiding and abetting it in provoking the progression to the final stage, namely the full-blown AIDS.
CHALLENGE OF AIDS A m o n g antigen detection, p24, the major core antigen appears first. Antigen detection kits are also based on the same principle as EIA, but they are very expensive. Furthermore, the test is not routinely applicable as the antigen is present only in the very early phase after exposure. As shown in the Fig. 12, HIV antigen again appears in the circulation, coincident with the drop in antibodies to this antigen. This stage coincides with the progression of HIV infection to AIDS.
THE VIRUS AND THE TESTS 41 Situation in India In India, ELISA is the most widely used test with Western blot as a confirmatory test. During the early phase of the epidemic, this strategy worked out satisfactorily. However, with the increase in the number of seropositives, the expensive confirmatory test now needs to be performed on a much larger number. Therefore, alternative strategies have been developed on the general principles recommended by the WHO, also keeping in mind our culture and socio-economic conditions.