Calcium Carbonate: From the Cretaceous Period into the 21st by Jacques Geyssant (auth.), F. Wolfgang Tegethoff (eds.)

By Jacques Geyssant (auth.), F. Wolfgang Tegethoff (eds.)

I. G OLOGY OF CALCIUM CARBO ATE 1 via Jacques Geyssant 1. good points and features of calcium carbonate 2 1. 1 Calcium carbonate - a unique compound 2 1. 2 The crystal varieties of calcium carbonate - mineralogy nine 2. The limestones - improvement and type 15 2. 1 Sedimentation sixteen 2. 2 Diagenesis - from sediment to rock 23 2. three category of the limestones 24 2. four Metamorphism - from limestone to marble 26 2. five Carbonatites - awesome limestones 29 three. Limestone deposits 31 three. 1 reputation of limestones 31 three. 2 Distribution at the Earth's floor 33 three. three Limestone deposits within the geological a long time 36 three. four CaC0 cycle forty two three three. five Industrially exploitable CaC0 deposits three forty four fifty three II. TH C LT RAt hello TORY F LIME TONE by means of Johannes Rohleder 1. The background of chalk fifty five 2. Marble and limestone sixty nine 2. 1 Quarrying stones 70 2. 2 shipping, business enterprise and alternate eighty 2. three The makes use of ninety seven 137 III. CALCI M CARBOl\ATE - A MODER source 1. The beginnings: Calcium carbonate in glazing putty and rubber 138 by way of Johannes Rohleder 1. 1 A chalk is born 139 1. 2 Rubber and glazing putty 142 1. three From chalk to calcium carbonate 156 2. Calcium carbonate - pigment and filler one hundred sixty via Eberhard Huwald 2. 1 houses and results of a filler 164 2. 2 Chalk, limestone, marble, pec - universal good points and transformations one hundred sixty five 2. 2.

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Here the chalk sedimented directly on the old base. So the deformation of the sea bed was the cause of the flooding. An accelerated expansion of the ocean ridge released large volumes of heat, the sea bed expanded upwards and the capacity of the oceans fell. The depth of the newly formed oceans such At that time only a few islands projected out of the water. These were the remains of the Hercynian mountain range which were covered by a humid tropical forest, which favoured a significant change in the granite rocks.

The name is derived from the Italian 'cipolla' (onion), as the newly formed, silicate minerals encourage skin-like spalling of the marble during weathering. Besides quartz and the deriving silicates, numerous sulphides and oxides form as components of crystalline marble. The most frequent metamorphism minerals are quartz, white mica (muscovite) and golden brown mica (phlogopite), green amphibole (actinolite) and white amphibole (tremolite), the green minerals diopside and serpentine, black graphite, the sulphides pyrite, marcasite and chalcopyrite and the feldspars, which are generally white.

Biodetritic sub-reef limestones of Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous age occur in large beds and are widespread in Europe. But only in a few areas do they achieve sufficient brightness and purity. At Belchite in Spain, south-east of Saragossa, for instance, the white limestones of Upper Jurassic are quarried, but they are also found in the south of the country, in the mountains west of Granada. Here the rocks are so compact and solid that they are sawn into blocks, polished and used as "marble".

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