By Ronald Rubin
An huge, immense quantity of analysis attempt has been directed towards elucidating the mechanism during which ingredients are extruded from cells; and experiences were written and symposia held to be able to systematize the plethora of proof made to be had. even though, the ways hired to review the secretory strategy were so various that it's tough, if now not most unlikely, for one person or perhaps a staff of people to maintain abreast of all points of the sphere and to research them significantly. therefore I undertook the writing of this quantity with loads of trepidation. In trying to find a few start line, I certainly regarded as my fundamental concentration the function of calcium within the secretory approach, which has occupied my learn pursuits for the earlier thirteen years. yet considering that lots experimentation has been performed in this and similar issues over the past decade or , I felt it was once nonetheless essential to visualize this enterprise from substitute ap proaches: (1) a extra basic one, which might disguise the topic of calcium and the secretory approach from a extensive viewpoint, yet in fact now not in nice aspect, and (2) a extra particular one, limiting insurance to scrupulously outlined limits yet with complete research of restricted subject matters. the ultimate path undertaken looks to lie someplace among those extremes.
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Extra info for Calcium and the Secretory Process
In adrenal chromaffin cells, which have the same embryological ancestry as neuronal tissue, the inward calcium current required for catecholamine release also enters through channels functionally distinct from the inward sodium current (Douglas and Kanno, 1967). Moreover, lowering the sodium concentration of the medium bathing isolated neurohypophyses augments secretion but does not enhance calcium entry (Douglas and Poisner, 1964b). One must therefore consider the possibility that ionic events are interrelated in other ways.
C o GI a o Co-free Locke Locke ~ E Locke ) ( Fig. 3. The inhibitory effect of calcium deprivation on catecholamine release from the perfused cat adrenal gland in response to acetylcholine (ACh) (Douglas and Rubin 1961). The mechanism of the direct stimulatory effect of calcium requires some explanation, because it helps to understand certain basic physiological principles. Remembering that calcium is of great importance in controlling membrane permeability, it was reasoned that during calcium deprivation the permeability of the chromaffin cell is increased, and when calcium is returned to the perfusion medium it is able to enter the interior of the chromaffin cell to trigger the secretory process.
ION ANTAGONISMS When evaluating the role of calcium in secretion and other types of cellular activity, its relation to other cations must always Ion Antagonisms 21 be considered. The ability of sodium and potassium to antagonize many of the effects of calcium in a variety of plant and animal cells has been known since the last century (d. Hober, 1945). In 1883 Sidney Ringer noted that sodium and potassium oppose the stimulant effect of calcium on the heart. More recent work has shown that the mechanism of this antagonism is the depression of the rate of calcium entry into the heart (Ltittgau and Niedergerke, 1958).