By Committee on Military Nutrition Research, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine
This document from the Committee on army nutrients study reports the heritage of caffeine utilization, the metabolism of caffeine, and its physiological results. the consequences of caffeine on actual functionality, cognitive functionality and application, and relief of sleep deprivation impairments are mentioned in gentle of contemporary clinical literature. The influence of caffeine intake on quite a few elements of future health, together with heart problems, replica, bone mineral density, and fluid homeostasis are reviewed. The behavioral results of caffeine also are mentioned, together with the impression of caffeine on response to emphasize, withdrawal results, and unsafe results of excessive intakes. The quantities of caffeine discovered to reinforce vigilance and response time constantly are reviewed and suggestions are made with admire to quantities of caffeine applicable for holding alertness of army body of workers in the course of box operations. options also are supplied at the want for applicable labeling of caffeine-containing vitamins, and schooling of army team of workers at the use of those supplementations. a short evaluation of a few possible choices to caffeine can be supplied.
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Extra info for Caffeine for the Sustainment of Mental Task Performance: Formulations for Military Operations
Increasing concentration of plasma-free fatty acids following intravenous administration of caffeine was negatively correlated to plasma caffeine concentrations, and highly positively correlated to plasma paraxanthine concentrations. Paraxanthine has been found to be an equipotent adenosine antagonist to caffeine in vitro. Benowitz et al. (1995) demonstrated that both caffeine and paraxanthine significantly increased diastolic blood pressure, plasma concentrations of epinephrine, and free fatty acids.
For adults who actually consumed caffeine products, mean daily intake was 4 mg/kg BW, and for the ninetieth percentile of caffeine users, intakes approximated 5–7 mg/kg BW. 5 mg/kg BW for the ninetieth percentile of caffeine users. 9 mg/kg BW for the ninetieth percentile of caffeine users. THE COMMITTEE’S TASK Surveys indicate that more than 90 percent of the military population consumes caffeine at some level on a daily basis. A small-sample survey reported by Lieberman (1999) indicated that mean caffeine intake among military personnel was 340 mg/d.
No other substance has this combination of uses. As a food additive caffeine is generally considered safe based on its long history of use and on extensive research conducted throughout the world for more than a century. However, despite this long history of use, modern epidemiological techniques have raised concerns about associations between continued use of high levels of caffeine and long-term health. Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) and the related methylxanthines, theobromine (3,7-dimethylxanthine) and theophylline (1,3-dimethylxanthine), are widely distributed in plants throughout the world.