By Kees d'Angremond, F. van Roode
Breakwaters and closure dams belong to the main excellent hydraulic constructions. they're uncovered to the main critical loading through waves and currents, both in the course of their development, or in the course of their existence cycle.
Design and building of those constructions are so vitally interrelated right understanding requires an intensive wisdom of the theory and a formal figuring out of useful concerns.
This publication deals an essential, integrated combination of conception and perform to the graduate student. Beginning with a description of the practical standards, it discusses the suitable conception and indicates the appliance of expertise and theoretical wisdom to the layout.
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Extra info for Breakwaters and closure dams
In both cases this was linked to agricultural development. It is typical of these damming activities that the control of river and storm surge levels becomes essential. Follow-up action, like the repair of dike breaches and sometimes the cutting off of river bends has been necessary throughout the ages. The other purposes mentioned, like generation of tidal energy, harbour and construction docks, dams for road or rail connection and fish ponds are incidental works and have a smaller impact on the surroundings.
Thoresen  gives suggestions for ships at berth in head seas. These values are slightly modified in Table 4-1 according to the experience of the authors. The acceptability of the conditions refers to both damage to the vessel and damage to the structure. 70 Table 4-1 Maximum wave heights for ships at berth Loading and unloading operations may impose extra restrictions. It will be clear that loading and unloading liquid bulk cargo via a flexible hose allows larger ship movements than placing containers in a slot.
Again, all available technical experience and equipment and improvisation had to be used on many sites simultaneously, to close these gaps before the next winter season. Initially, not all the gaps had the same degree of difficulty or dimension. However, various gaps could not be dealt with immediately because of the disrupted infrastructure and as a result they scoured to tremendous dimensions. This is illustrated in Figure 2-15 for the Schelphoek breach on the Isle of Schouwen along the Eastern Scheldt.