Biosynthesis and the Integration of Cell Metabolism by B C Currell, R C E Dam-Mieras

By B C Currell, R C E Dam-Mieras

This e-book discusses the next: uptake of food, nitrogen and sulphur assimilation, amino acid and nucleotide biosynthesis, the biosynthesis of carbohydrates, the combination and rules of metabolism and keep watch over of metabolic pathway flux

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Extra resources for Biosynthesis and the Integration of Cell Metabolism

Sample text

The ■*■ ■*■ oxidation state of the nitrogen atom in NO3 is and to be assimilated to NH3 49 Nitrogen a n d sulphur assimilation must be reduced to an oxidation number of electrons to NO3. _. This requires the transfer of The missing numbers are +5, -3 and 8, in that order. Nitrate is reduced to ammonia before it is incorporated into organic material. The process of assimilatory nitrate reduction is catalysed by two enzyme complexes called assimilatory nitrate reductase and assimilatory nitrite reductase.

The correct answer is no. This is because a reduced affinity on this side of the membrane would enhance the breakdown of the carrier-substrate complex. 7). It was originally thought that carriers might diffuse across the membrane, but studies have revealed that membrane proteins diffuse across the membrane only very slowly or not at all. We shall see later in this chapter that some antibiotics can act as diffusional carriers across membranes. Π system gains free energy in active transport Would you expect active and passive transport to be distinguishable according to thermodynamic principles?

Their specificity is mainly determined by the internal diameter of the ion channel. Gramimycin, for example, induces an increased permeability of the membrane for Na+ and K+ and other monovalent cations. 14. 14 The action of a channel forming ionophore (gramimycin). Two monomers, one in each monolayer of the membrane, associate to form one complete pore in the membrane. gramimycin monomers form channel dimers diffusional carrier ionophores Gramimycin is a polypeptide arranged in a helical manner with a hydrophobic periphery and a hydrophdlic channel.

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