By Robert N. Carrow
The advanced matters all for the administration of saline and sodic turfgrass soils are adequate to perplex even the main skilled website supervisor — there is not any "silver bullet" modification, therapy, or grass for salinity administration. top administration Practices for Saline and Sodic Turfgrass Soils: evaluate and Reclamation provides accomplished medical rules and specific, sensible administration and review techniques for turfgrass and panorama websites. The authors use the simplest administration Practices (BMPs) proposal, thought of the gold-standard administration process for any person environmental factor, because it is a complete surroundings (holistic), science-based salinity administration process that enables all attainable administration thoughts to be thought of and applied on a site-specific foundation. They determine BMP innovations, together with irrigation approach layout; irrigation scheduling and salinity leaching; chemical, actual, and organic amendments; cultivation; topdressing; soil amendment; sand-capping; floor and subsurface drainage innovations; dietary practices; extra cultural practices; and ongoing tracking. The ebook offers rising demanding situations, expertise, and ideas that tackle integration of salinity administration into finished website environmental or sustainable administration platforms, use of halophytic turfgrasses for non-traditional reasons, integration of geospatial and geostatistical options and know-how, and integration of latest sensor expertise into day-by-day administration paradigms. Outlining a holistic BMP technique, the ebook accommodates medical rules and sensible administration ideas and information particular salinity demanding situations and the good judgment at the back of every one BMP technique for salinity administration, with an emphasis on real box difficulties. The ebook is formatted for versatile use, with stand-alone chapters that come with outlines for speedy evaluate of an issue for these requiring just a uncomplicated realizing in addition to in-depth discussions of the technological know-how and functional points for these looking a extra rigorous remedy. It provides a unmarried resource for the entire details required to spot and deal with various different types of salinity stresses.
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Extra info for Best Management Practices for Saline and Sodic Turfgrass Soils: Assessment and Reclamation
Stormwater management 11. Wildlife habitat management 12. Wetland and stream mitigation and management 13. Aquatic biology and management of lakes and ponds 14. Waste management 15. Energy management 16. Clubhouse and building Environmental Management Systems (EMS) concepts 17. Climatic and energy management Source: Adapted from Carrow, R. , F. C. Waltz, and K. Fletcher, Environmental stewardship requires a successful plan: Can the turfgrass industry state one? USGA Green Section Record, 46 (2), 25–32, 2008.
Not PA = Soil moisture that is not plant available since the water is retained in small micropores and as water films around soil colloids and salt ions. The saline soil contains more salts, which reduces the plant-available water. 1 Influence of total soluble salts on plant-available water for turfgrass uptake. Turfgrass plant response to salt-inducted drought stress can range from rather mild symptoms of some green color loss, blue-green coloration resembling regular drought stress plant symptoms, and initial plant wilting; to increasingly intense plant response symptoms under higher salt levels, such as major green color loss, severe wilting, and actual tissue desiccation of leaves, tillers, and whole plants.
1992; Ayers and Westcot, 1994; Oster, 1994; Grattan and Oster, 2003; Qadir and Oster, 2004); but with more saline waters increasingly used for landscape irrigation in urban areas with increasing population growth, urban secondary salinization is receiving more attention (Wilson, 2003). , 2006). Pillsbury (1981, 54) noted the impact of salinization in history and why the historical lessons must not be forgotten: Many ancient civilizations rose by diverting rivers and irrigating arid lands to grow crops.