By Maarten Franssen, Peter Kroes, Thomas A.C. Reydon, Pieter E. Vermaas
This booklet is worried with in detail similar themes of metaphysics: the id of entities and the rules of class. What it provides to earlier discussions of those subject matters is that it addresses them with recognize to human-made entities, that's, artefacts. because the chapters within the booklet express, questions of identification and category require different remedies and result in different solutions for artefacts than for common entities. those solutions are of curiosity to philosophers not just for his or her rationalization of artefacts as a class of items but in addition for the recent mild they could shed on those factor with recognize to to typical entities.
This quantity is dependent in 3 elements. The contributions partially I handle easy ontological and metaphysical questions in terms of artefact varieties: How may still we conceive of artefact types? Are they actual varieties? How are id stipulations for artefacts and artefact varieties similar? The contributions partly II tackle meta-ontological questions: What, precisely, may still an ontological account of artefact forms offer us with? What scope can it goal for? Which methods of imminent the ontology of artefact types are there, how promising are they, and the way should still we investigate this? partially III, the essays supply engineering perform instead of theoretical philosophy as some degree of reference. the problems addressed the following contain: How do engineers classify technical artefacts and on what grounds? What makes particular periods of technical artefacts applicants for ontologically genuine types, and wherein criteria?
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Extra info for Artefact Kinds: Ontology and the Human-Made World
J. (2003). In defense of medium-sized specimens of dry goods. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 68, 704–710. Lowe, E. J. (2006a). The four-category ontology: A metaphysical foundation for natural science. Oxford: Clarendon. Lowe, E. J. (2006b). Is conceptualist realism as stable position? Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 71, 456–461. Lowe, E. J. (2008). How are identity conditions grounded? In C. ), Persistence (pp. 73–89). Frankfurt: Ontos Verlag. Lowe, E. J. (2009). More kinds of being: A further study of individuation, identity, and the logic of sortal terms.
So the historically proper placement, for household screwdrivers, includes screws themselves. In the case of many artifact-kinds, there will be a fairly rich set of essential properties – the “causal gearing” will extend fairly far. For example, screwdrivers must not only be characterized by a certain shape – a “morphology” narrowly so-called – but must be composed of fairly tough and cohesive materials. For they must be capable of turning screws against the resistance of wood or metal in the objects being attached.
The papers in the stack get clamped together at just a single point, and the friction involved in pushing the paper clip over the stack is concentrated at that single point. Paper clips of the two-pointed “butterfly” shape intersect a stack at two different points, and the friction can more easily be overcome by lightly rocking the clip back and forth. In any case, something has to have conferred a market advantage for the “butterfly” shape, at least among some consumers – otherwise the development of that design would merely have hindered profitability – and I am suggesting that this greater ease in application is what did it.