Approaches to Bronchitis by Marianna D. Gaça

By Marianna D. Gaça

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Potential of the Phytomedicine Echinacea in the Treatment of Pulmonary Infections and Bronchitis 47 Studies on rhinovirus infected human bronchial and lung epithelial cell lines showed that the virus could stimulate the secretion of more than 30 different cytokines, including the proinflammatory IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF, which are known to be collectively involved in many of the symptoms common to colds and ‘flu. , 2008a). , 2007; 2009). More recent studies by Sharma and colleagues focused on the application of standardized E.

2008) found that vascular and pulmonary diseases are associated with long-term exposure to air pollution. Putting the hypothesis that inflammation of the lung epithelium and endothelium, resulting in airway and vascular pathology, are due to exposure to polluted air. Besides the geographical and climatological characteristics, the urban pollution sources play an important role on air quality. According to a study (Fontes, 2005) on the impact in urban air quality of road traffic, in 2000, 41% of emissions in the Porto Metropolitan Area was due to transport.

Moreover, according to Gao et al. (2007) concentration of ozone increases due to higher solar radiation, photochemical reactions between air components and ozone precursors. The increase in tropospheric ozone, during this period of January and February, was related to the diseases as shown in Table 3. 50). According to Gonçalves, et al. (2005) thermal comfort indices associate more than 1 variable (actually three) in just one variable, which 30 Approaches to Bronchitis decrease the variability and increase the explanation of the variance, explained by this variable.

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