# An Introduction to the Commodore 64: Adventures in by Nevin B. Scrimshaw, James Vogel (auth.)

By Nevin B. Scrimshaw, James Vogel (auth.)

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Extra resources for An Introduction to the Commodore 64: Adventures in Programming

Example text

One of the simplest programs for adding up those numbers is: 19 FOR Q = 1 TO 1999 STEP2 29 LET S = S+Q 39 NEXT Q 49 PRINT "THE SUM IS ";S When you RUN this program you will get 1,000,000. This answer seems suspicious. Did we really get the first 1000 odd numbers? How can we be sure that there weren't 999 by mistake? To check this we can put tracers into the program as we did in the coin flip program in Chapter 6. Add the following lines: 2S COP = COP+ 1 27 PRINT S,Q,COP 3S PRINT "THE COUNTER IS AT ";COP The variable COP enters the FOR/NEXT loop with a value of" (another example of initialization).

We used this commmand in Cursory Cursor. The line: 15 GET A\$ : IF A\$ = "" THEN 15 instructs the computer to GET the last key pressed, if any; if none, keep trying. Setting Volume Controls Line 2e sets the volume at 15. You have a choice of 0-15 volume settings; 15 is the loudest and most frequently used. Numbers larger than 15 influence certain filters that can be used in more advanced programming. For now, however, stick with 15. Also, note that one volume setting governs all three voices. Setting ADSR Controls Line 30 sets the ADSR, or Attack, Decay, Sustain, Release.

We will learn more about sprites in Chapter 12. 41 An in-depth charge at subroutines 8 Program Design In Chapter 5 you practiced cursor control with a program called Cursory Cursor. In this chapter, we take a closer look at how this program is put together. When you understand the underlying logic, you can add your own custom features to create all kinds of games. Cursory Cursor has six parts: 1. Initialization. 2. Pick a point subroutine. 3. Set letter subroutine. 4. Get cursor subroutine. S. Main logic unit.