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Extra resources for An Introduction to Simple Climate Models used in the IPCC Second Assessment Report (IPCC Technical Paper II - February 1997)
2 Another consequence of the different computational demands of simple and complex models relates to initialization. Ideally, one should begin a simulation with anthropogenic forcing starting from a steady-state (or “balanced”) climate, so that the simulated changes are due to the applied perturbation and not a consequence of the starting state. However, since the spin-up of coupled AOGCMs to a steady state requires thousands of simulated years, some anthropogenic forcing experiments using coupled AOGCMs have been started with the model in a nonequilibrium state.
It is assumed in both models that the global mean temperature response to a radiative forcing perturbation depends only on the global mean value of the perturbation, and that the climate sensitivity is the same irrespective of the magnitude or direction of the radiative forcing. 4, the dependence of climate sensitivity on the magnitude, direction, and nature of the forcing is thought to be small, in most cases, compared to the underlying uncertainty in the sensitivity itself (a factor of three).
4. SIMPLE CLIMATE MODELS USED IN THE IPCC SECOND ASSESSMENT REPORT In this section, we provide details concerning the specific SCMs and modules, and the associated assumptions, used in the SAR WGI. We begin with the computation of radiative forcing from emission scenarios, followed by the projection of global mean temperature change, and finally, the projection of future changes in sea level (as illustrated in Figure 4). 3). The quantitative relationships used are summarized in Appendices 1 and 2.