an introduction to Industrial Chemistry by C A Heaton (auth.), C A Heaton (eds.)

By C A Heaton (auth.), C A Heaton (eds.)

The significance of business chemistry Chemistry is a demanding and fascinating topic for tutorial examine. Its rules and ideas are used to provide the chemical compounds from which all demeanour of fabrics and at last buyer items are synthetic. the variety of examples is gigantic, starting from cement to iron and metal, and directly to glossy plastics that are so customary within the packaging of purchaser items and within the manufacture of home items. certainly existence as we all know it this day couldn't exist with out the chemical undefined. Its contribution to the saving of lives and reduction of discomfort is immeasurable; man made medicines reminiscent of these which decrease blood strain (e. g. /3-blockers), assault bacterial and viral infections (e. g. antibiotics resembling the penicillins and cephalosporins) and exchange important usual chemical substances which the physique isn't really generating as a result of a few malfunction (e. g. insulin, a few vitamins), are relatively noteworthy during this admire. impression chemical substances additionally truly make an effect on our daily lives. examples are using polytetrafluoroethylene (polytetrafluoroethene Teflon or Fluon) to supply a non-stick floor coating for cooking utensils, and silicones that are used to ease the release of bread from baking tins. it may even be famous that the chemical industry's actions have a power on all different industries, both when it comes to delivering uncooked fabrics or chemical substances for quality controls analyses and to enhance operation, and to regard boiler water, cooling water and effiuents.

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More recently an accident at a plant in Bhopal in India accidently released methyl isocyanate onto the surrounding population with terrible consequences-some reports have put the final death toll as high as 3000 and many thousands more were seriously injured. After 4 years of legal wrangling the company owning the plant, Union Carbide, in 1989, agreed to pay $470 million to the victims. Yet again human error appears to have been the cause of the tragedy. 5 CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) CFCs are the remarkably inert and non-toxic chlorofluorocarbons such as CFC 11, (CFCI 3 ) and CFC 12, (CF 2CI2)' Their trade names are Freons (DuPont) and Arctons (ICI).

The principal advantage of oil is that (i) it contains molecules with linked carbon atoms, and (ii) it contains hydrogen already attached to carbon atoms. Other attractions of oil as a source of chemicals are its mobility due to its liquid nature and the scale and efficiency of the established processes for its conversion. Coal is less attractive because, as a solid, it is much more difficult to handle and transport. Recent events have reduced the momentum of the drive from oil to coal. Many of the oilproducing countries have maintained or even increased production levels (although Saudi Arabia is a notable exception) since the oil revenues are the cornerstone of their development and industrialization, but consumption of oil has been reduced due to energy conservation measures, and this has led to a current surplus.

Additionally these processes produced olefins or alkenes, and at this particular time there was no outlet for these as petroleum products. Subsequent research and development showed that they were very useful chemical intermediates from which a wide range of organic chemicals could be synthesized. This was the start of the petrochemical industry. 24 AN INTRODUCTION TO INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY Up to the early 1940s the production of chemicals from petroleum was confined to North America. This was due in no small measure to the policy of locating refineries adjacent to the oilfields.

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