A Measure of Freedom by Ian Carter

By Ian Carter

This booklet presents the 1st systematic account of the character and significance of our decisions approximately levels of freedom. writer Ian Carter analyzes the normative assumptions at the back of the declare that people are entitled to a degree of freedom. He argues for a perception of freedom that not just displays as a rule held intuitions approximately who's freer than who yet can also be suitable with a liberal or freedom-based concept of justice.

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130 The depth of ideological suspicion among certain members of the British political elite was such that the actions neither of the German nor Soviet governments during the 1930s would have made any significant difference. 137 Unlike other opinions of the Russians, this perception of the Russian armed forces was not historic. 138 The belief that the Soviet Union was militarily weak existed only from 1937 onwards and was a result of the undermining of the Soviet forces by Stalin’s purges. The Foreign Office had received reports throughout 1938 stating that the THE CABINET AND COMMUNISM 23 ‘army had…been seriously weakened by recent events’.

No other government, including the French, which also had a treaty of assistance with Czechoslovakia, was expected to make a unilateral declaration of assistance. This reflected the arrogance and presumption of many within the Cabinet. Even when the Soviet government made quite clear its intention to fulfil its obligations according to the treaty signed with Czechoslovakia in 1935, this did not satisfy British officials. ’57 The reason Litvinov’s wholly unambiguous answer did not satisfy Butler was because nothing the Soviets said or did would be enough for those who were intent on opposing collaboration for other reasons.

Paul Boncour, Entre deux Guerres (1945–7), vol. III, pp. 96– 101; G. Bonnet, Defence de la Paix (1946–8), vol. I, pp. 125, 138; General M. Gamelin, Servir (1946–7), vol. II, pp. 318–61. Cited in Thorne, Approach of War, pp. Alexander, The Republic in Danger: General Maurice Gamelin and the Politics of French Defence 1933–1940 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992), p. 279. 26. Alexander, Gamelin, pp. 279; 299–300. 27. Ibid. Telegram from Phipps to Foreign Office, 24 Jan. 1938, no. 108, PHPPS 1/19, Phipps papers, Churchill College archives, Cambridge University; Michael Jabara Carley, ‘Down a Blind Alley: Anglo-Franco-Soviet Relations, 1920–1939’, Canadian Journal of History, 29 (1994), pp.

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